The CRAAP Test -- Whether reading a book, article, or website, be an information skeptic--scrutinize, analyze, and evaluate your sources.
• When was the information published or posted?
• Has the information been revised or updated?
• Is the information current or out-of-date for your topic?
• How well does this suit your topic or answer your questions?
• Who is the intended audience?
• Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?
• Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
• Are the author’s credentials or organizational affliations given?
• What are the author’s qualifications to write on the topic?
• Is there a way to contact the author?
• Where does the information come from?
• Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
• Can you verify any of the information?
• Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?
• Is the purpose to inform, sell, entertain, or persuade?
• Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions clear?
• Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?
What could a writer/presenter/performer do with this source?
More on "How to Use Sources Effectively."
Based on Bizup, J. (2008). BEAM: A rhetorical vocabulary for teaching research-based writing. Rhetoric Review 27.1, 72-86.
|Information Need||Sources to Consult||Search Tools & Help|
|Overview of Topic||
|Primary Sources (first hand or contemporary accounts)||
|Secondary Sources (comprehensive and/or detailed analyses)||
|Current Events, Popular Culture||