The CRAAP Test -- Whether reading a book, article, or website, be an information skeptic--scrutinize, analyze, and evaluate your sources.
• When was the information published or posted?
• Has the information been revised or updated?
• Is the information current or out-of-date for your topic?
• How well does this suit your topic or answer your questions?
• Who is the intended audience?
• Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?
• Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
• Are the author’s credentials or organizational affliations given?
• What are the author’s qualifications to write on the topic?
• Is there a way to contact the author?
• Where does the information come from?
• Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
• Can you verify any of the information?
• Is the purpose to inform, sell, entertain, or persuade?
• Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions clear?
• How does the author(s) make use of emotion?
• Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?
1. Who is the author? Is he/she a scholar? A historian? A social scientist? A journalist? A blogger? Is it or is it not clear who the author is?
2. What was the author's purpose for writing this article/book/website? Who is the intended audience? How do you know?
3. What kinds of evidence does the author use? Does the author document her/his sources? Does the author rely on opinion or unsubstantiated claims?
4. What kinds of questions can we ask using this article/book/website?
5. What questions are we unable to answer using this article/book/website?
What could a writer/presenter/performer do with this source?
Based on Bizup, J. (2008). BEAM: A rhetorical vocabulary for teaching research-based writing. Rhetoric Review 27.1, 72-86.